Research Library

The research conducted within the greater umbrella of “kinesthetic learning” and all of its facets is both broad and detailed. Below we have listed a number of studies, articles, and papers related to these interconnected areas of study within the world of movement-based education.

This list is by no means exhaustive, but we hope it provides you with a comprehensive starting point for further research!

Citation Style: American Educational Research Journal

Kinesthetic Learning, Physical Activity, & Play

Abrahamson, D. (2004). Embodied Spatial Articulation: A Gesture Perspective on  Student Negotiation between Kinesthetic Schemas and Epistemic Forms in Learning Mathematics. Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Meeting North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 2, 791–797.

Baraoidan, R. (n.d.). The Importance of Implementing Kinesthetics During Math Instruction to Improve Student Engagement & Learning [Poster Presentation].

Bonny, J., Lindberg, J., & Pacampara, M. (2017). Hip Hop Dance Experience Linked to Sociocognitive Ability. PLoS ONE, 12(2), 1–26.

Brown, S., & Vaughan, C. (2009). Play: How it Shapes the Brain, Opens the Imagination, and Invigorates the Soul. Penguin Publishing Group.

Brusseau, T., & Hannon, J. (2015). Impacting Children’s Health and Academic  Performance through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 7(3), 441–450.

Camahalan, F. M., & Ipock, A. (2015). Physical Activity Breaks and Student Learning: A Teacher-Research Project. Education, 135(3), 291–298.

Carr, D. (2010). On the Moral Value of Physical Activity: Body and Soul in Plato’s Account of Virtue. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 4(1), 3–15.

Dalleck, L., & Kravitz, L. (2002). The history of fitness: From primitive to present times, how fitness has evolved and come of age. IDEA Health & Fitness Source, 20(1).


Fede, M. (2012). Physical Activity Strategies for Improved Cognition: The Mind/Body Connection. Strategies, 25(8), 16–20.

Ferder, B. (2015). The Integration of Kinesthetic Learning through the Math & Movement Program: Pilot Study [Master in Science Education]. State University of New York College at Cortland.

Freeman, S., Eddy, S., McDonough, M., Smith, M., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. PNAS, 111(23), 8410–8415.

Garvey, C. (1990). Play: The Developing Child (Enlarged). Harvard University Press.

Gee, N., Harris, S., & Johnson, K. (2007). The Role of Therapy Dogs in Speed and Accuracy to Complete Motor Skills Tasks for Preschool Children. Anthrozoos, 20(4), 375–386.

Gilakjani, A. P. (2012). Visual, Auditory, Kinaesthetic Learning Styles and Their Impacts on English Language Teaching. Journal of Studies in Education, 2(1), 104–113.

Ginsburg, K., Committee on Communications, & Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health. (2007). The Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Bonds. American Academy of Pediatrics, 119(1), 182–191.

Glenberg, A., Gutierrez, T., Levin, J., Japuntich, S., & Kaschak, M. (2004). Activity and Imagined Activity Can Enhance Young Children’s Reading Comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(3), 424–436.

Have, M., Nielsen, J. H., Ernst, M. T., Gejl, A. K., Fredens, K., Grøntved, A., & Kristensen, P. L. (2018). Classroom-based physical activity improves children’s math achievement – A randomized controlled trial. PLOS ONE, 13(12), e0208787.

Hill, L., Williams, J. H. G., Aucott, L., Milne, J., Thomson, J., Greig, J., Munro, V., & Mon-Williams, M. (2010). Exercising attention within the classroom. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 52, 929–934.

Hoffmann, J., & Russ, S. (2016). Fostering Pretend Play Skills and Creativity in Elementary School Girls: A Group Play Intervention. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 10(1), 114–125.

Kropp, J., & Shupp, M. (2017). Review of the Research: Are Therapy Dogs in Classrooms Beneficial? Forum on Public Policy Online, 2017(2).

Kulinna, P. H., Cothran, D. J., Brusseau, T., & Tudor-Locke, C. (2008). Increasing Physical Activity Behaviors through a Comprehensive School Change Effort. AARE 2008 International Education Research Conference, Brisbane, Australia.

Len Kravitz & Lance C. Dalleck. (2002). The History of Fitness. Idea Health & Fitness Source.

Maddock, R., Casazza, G., Fernandez, D., & Maddock, M. (2016). Acute Modulation of Cortical Glutamate and GABA Content by Physical Activity. The Journal of Neuroscience, 36(8), 2449–2457.

Mahar, M. T., Murphy, S. K., Rowe, D. A., Golden, J., Shields, A. T., & Raedeke, T. D. (2006). Effects of a Classroom-Based Program on Physical Activity and On-Task Behavior. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38(12), 2086–2094.

McCue, T. (2019). How Combined Learning Style Not Just Visual Or Kinesthetic Can Help You Succeed. Forbes.

McKibben, S. (2018). Why Schools Are Going to the Dogs. ASCD, 60(2).

Metzler, R. (2016). The Academic Effects of Kinesthetic Movement With Multiplication Fact Acquisition Instruction for Students in Third Grade [Masters of Education]. Goucher College.

Moore, M., & Russ, S. (2008). Follow-up of a Pretend Play Intervention: Effects on Play, Creativity, and Emotional Processes in Children. Creativity Research Journal, 20(4), 427–436.

Muller, R. (2016). Exercising Your Way to PTSD Recovery. Psychology Today.

Nasiakou, L., Lehto, S., Goranova, S., Osborne, K., & Fenyvesi, K. (2019). Exploring Rotational Symmetries and Triangles through Dance and Body Movement: Maths in Motion. Proceedings of Bridges 2019: Mathematics, Art, Music, Architecture, Education, Culture, 621–628.

Novak, M. (2017). Case Studies Listening to Students Using Kinesthetic Movement While Learning to Graph Linear Functions [PhD Dissertation]. Kent State University.

Phillips, D., Hannon, J. C., & Castelli, D. M. (2015). Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 34(3), 346–362.

Ratey, J. J., & Hagerman, E. (2013). Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain (Reprint edition). Little, Brown and Company.

Reid, H. (2007). Sport and Moral Education in Plato’s Republic. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 34(2), 160–175.

Strean, W. (2011). Creating Student Engagement? HMM: Teaching and Learning with Humor, Music, and Movement. Creative Education, 2(3), 189–192.

Tomporowski, P. (2003). Effects of acute bouts of exercise on cognition. Acta Psychologica, 112(3), 297–324.

Wolfe, L. (2009). Human Timeline: A Spatial‐Kinesthetic Exercise in Biblical History. Teaching Theology and Religion, 12(4), 366–370.

Zimmerman, V. (2002). Moving Poems: Kinesthetic Learning in the Literature Classroom. Pedagogy, 2(3), 409–412.

ACEs & Toxic Stress

American Mental Wellness Association. (n.d.). Risk and Protective Factors.

Austin, A., Herrick, H., Proescholdbell, S., & Simmons, J. (2016). Disability and Exposure to High Levels of Adverse Childhood Experiences: Effect on Health and Risk Behavior. N C Med J., 77(1), 30–36.

Barry-Jester, A. M. (2019). California Looks To Lead Nation In Unraveling Childhood Trauma. California Healthline.

Bethell, C., Newacheck, P., Hawes, E., & Halfon, N. (2014). Adverse Childhood Experiences: Assessing The Impact On Health And School Engagement And The Mitigating Role Of Resilience. Health Affairs, 33(12), 2106–2115.

Blodgett, C., & Lanigan, J. (2018). The association between adverse childhood experience (ACE) and school success in elementary school children. School Psychology Quarterly, 33(1), 137–146.

Busso, D., Davis, C., & O’Neil, M. (2020). Strategies for Effectively Communicating about Toxic Stress (p. 29). Frame Works.

Campbell, J., Walker, R., & Egede, L. (2016). Associations Between Adverse Childhood Experiences, High-Risk Behaviors, and Morbidity in Adulthood. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 50(3), 344–352.

Center for Youth Wellness. (n.d.). Childhood adversity increases risk for long-term health and behavioral issues.

Center for Youth Wellness. (2014). A Hidden Crisis: Findings on Adverse Childhood Experiences in California (p. 32) [Data]. Center for Youth Wellness.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Adverse Childhood Experiences. Violence Prevention.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002a). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2001 (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report). CDC.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002b). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2019 (69.1; Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report). CDC.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Preventing Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs): Leveraging the Best Available Evidence. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Chang, X., Jiang, X., Mkandarwire, T., & Shen, M. (2019). Associations between adverse childhood experiences and health outcomes in adults aged 18–59 years. PLoS ONE, 14(2), 1–11.

Cole, S., O’Brien, J., Gadd, M. G., Ristuccia, J., Wallace, D. L., & Gregory, M. (2005). Helping Traumatized Children Learn: Supportive school environments for children traumatized by family violence (p. 118) [Policy Agenda]. Massachusetts Advocates for Children.

Digitale, E. (2009). Brain imaging shows kids’ PTSD symptoms linked to poor hippocampus function in Stanford/Packard study. Stanford Medicine News Center.

Dube, S., Felitti, V., Dong, M., & Chapman, D. (2003). Childhood Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction and the Risk of Illicit Drug Use: The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Pediatrics, 111(3), 564–572.

Duplechain, R., Reigner, R., & Packard, A. (2008). Striking Differences: The Impact of Moderate and High Trauma on Reading Achievement. Reading Psychology, 29(2), 117–136.

Ellen, J. (2012). Spokane, WA, students’ trauma prompts search for solutions. ACES Too High!

Fabian, R. (2018). PTSD and the Difference Between Big ‘T’ and Little ‘t’ Traumas. The Talkspace Voice.

Felitti, V., Anda, R., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D., Spitz, A., Edwards, V., Koss, M., & Marks, J. (1998). Relationship of Childhood Abuse and Household Dysfunction to Many of the Leading Causes of Death in Adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258.

Florida State University College of Medicine. (n.d.). What is Toxic Stress.

Focus for Health. (2018). The Cost of Stress: The Devastating Effects of Toxic Stress in Children and Adults.

Fornari, V. (2019). When trauma begets new trauma [Northwell Health]. Insights.

Franke, H. (2014). Toxic Stress: Effects, Prevention and Treatment. Children, 1(3), 390–402.

Gilles, G. (2018). Understanding Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Healthline.

Harris, N. B. (2019). The Deepest Well: Healing the Long-Term Effects of Childhood Adversity. Mariner Books.

Herzog, J., & Schmahl, C. (2018). Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Consequences on Neurobiological, Psychosocial, and Somatic Conditions Across the Lifespan. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9(420).

Idaho Youth Ranch. (n.d.). ACEs and Education.

Interface Children Family Services. (n.d.). Beyond Trauma: Building Resilience to Adverse Childhood Experiences (p. 8). Interface Children Family Services.

Jarvis, P. (2018). Adverse childhood experiences too high? Educating Yorkshire in ACEs awareness [Research]. Resilience: The Biology of Stress & The Science of Hope.

Jones, L., & Cureton, J. (2014). Trauma redefined in the DSM-5: Rationale and implications for counseling practice. The Professional Counselor, 4(3), 257–271.

Kraybill, O. (2019). What Is Trauma? Psychology Today.

Liu, D., Tannenbaum, B., Caldji, C., Francis, D., Freedman, A., Sharma, S., Pearson, D., Plotsky, P., & Meaney, M. (1997). Maternal Care, Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptors, and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Responses to Stress. Science, 277, 1659–1662.

Matthews, T., Danese, A., Wertz, J., Ambler, A., Kelly, M., Diver, A., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T., & Arseneault, L. (2015). Social Isolation and Mental Health at Primary and Secondary School Entry: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(3), 225–232.

McKlindon, A., & McInerney, M. (2014). Unlocking the Door to Learning: Trauma-Informed Classrooms & Transformational Schools. Education Law Center.

Mersky, J. P., Topitzes, J., & Reynolds, A. J. (2013). Impacts of adverse childhood experiences on health, mental health, and substance use in early adulthood: A cohort study of an urban, minority sample in the U.S. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(11), 917–925.

Metzler, M., Merrick, M., Klevens, J., Ports, K., & Ford, D. (2017). Adverse childhood experiences and life opportunities: Shifting the narrative. Children and Youth Services Review, 72, 141–149.

National Council for Community Behavioral Healthcare. (2014). How to Manage Trauma [Infographic].

National Scientific Council. (2014). Excessive stress disrupts the development of brain architecture. Journal of Children’s Services, 9(2), 143–153.

Notaras, M., & van den Buuse, M. (2020). Neurobiology of BDNF in fear memory, sensitivity to stress, and stress-related disorders. Molecular Psychiatry, 25, 2251–2274.

Peters, A., Ren, X., Bessette, K., Goldstein, B., West, A., Langenecker, S., & Pandey, G. (2019). Interplay between pro-inflammatory cytokines, childhood trauma, and executive function in depressed adolescents. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 114, 1–10.

Pizzolongo, P., & Hunter, A. (2011). I Am Safe and Secure: Promoting Resilience in Young Children. Young Children, 67–69.

Portell, M. (2019). Understanding Trauma-Informed Education: The principal of an internationally recognized trauma-informed school explains what this form of education is—And what it isn’t. Edutopia.

Reavis, J. (2013f). Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Criminality: How Long Must We Live before We Possess Our Own Lives? The Permanente Journal, 17(2), 44–48.

Schlanger, D. (2012). The Optimal Level Of Anxiety You Need To Perform Well. Insider.,at%20The%20Wall%20Street%20Journal.

Science News Staff. (1997). Extra Licking Makes for Relaxed Rats [Science]. Brain & Behavior.,extra%20nurturing%20had%20paid%20off

Sege, R., & Browne, C. H. (2017). Responding to ACEs With HOPE: Health Outcomes From Positive Experiences. Academic Pediatrics, 17(7S), S79–S85.

Shern, D., Blanch, A., & Steverman, S. (2014). Impact of Toxic Stress on Individuals and Communities: A Review of the Literature (p. 36). Mental Health America.

Shonkoff, J., Boyce, W. T., & Mcewen, B. (2009). Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, and the Childhood Roots of Health Disparities: Building a New Framework for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(21), 2252–2259.


Smith, D., Davis, J., & Fricker-Elhai, A. (2004). How Does Trauma Beget Trauma? Cognitions About Risk in Women With Abuse Histories. Child Maltreatment, 9(3), 292–303.

Smith, T. (2019). Father Of Sandy Hook Shooting Victim Dies By Apparent Suicide. NPR.

Spinks-Franklin, A. (2019). The impact of toxic stress in children. Texas Children’s Blog.

Sporleder, J., & Forbes, H. (2016). The Trauma-Informed School: A Step-by Step Implementation Guide for Administrators and School Personnel. Beyond Consequences Institute, LLC.

Stempel, H., Cox-Martin, M., Bronsert, M., Dickinson, L. M., & Allison, M. (2017). Chronic School Absenteeism and the Role of Adverse Childhood Experiences. Academic Pediatrics, 17(8), 837–843.

The National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (n.d.). Creating Trauma-Informed Systems.

The Raising of America. (2017). Stress: The Good, the Bad and the Toxic. The Raising of America: Early Childhood and the Future of Our Nation.

The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2013). The Truth About ACEs Infographic [Infographic].

Twin Lakes. (2016). Facing the Root Causes of Addiction: Trauma.

van der Kolk, B. (2009). Entwicklungstrauma-Störung: Auf dem Weg zu einer sinnvollen Diagnostik für chronisch traumatisierte Kinder. Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, 58(8), 572–586.

van der Kolk, B. (2015). The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma. Penguin Books.

Zimrin, H. (1986). A profile of survival. Child Abuse & Neglect, 10(3), 339–349.

Teaching Mathematics

Baker, S., Gersten, R., & Lee, D.-S. (2002). A Synthesis of Empirical Research on Teaching Mathematics to Low-Achieving Students. The Elementary School Journal, 103(1), 51–73.

Ball, D. (1993). With an eye on the mathematical horizon: Dilemmas of teaching elementary school  mathematics. Elementary School Journal, 93(4), 373–397.

Berkseth, H. (2013). The Effectiveness of Manipulatives in the Elementary School Classroom [Honors College Theses, Wayne State University].

Blair, C., & Razza, P. (2007). Relating Effortful Control, Executive Function, and False Belief Understanding to Emerging Math and Literacy Ability in Kindergarten. Child Development, 78(2), 647–663.

Boaler, J., & Dweck, C. (2015). Mathematical Mindsets: Unleashing Students’ Potential through Creative Math, Inspiring Messages and Innovative Teaching (1st ed.). Jossey-Bass.

Boston Consulting Group (BCG). (2014). Teachers Know Best: Teachers’ Views on Professional Development. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Clements, D., Sarama, J., Spitler, M., Lange, A., & Wolfe, C. (2011). Mathematics Learned by Young Children in an Intervention Based on Learning Trajectories: A Large-Scale Cluster Randomized Trial. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 42(2), 127–166.

David J. Chard, Scott K. Baker, Ben Clarke, Kathleen Jungjohann, Karen Davis, & Keith Smolkowski. (2008). Preventing Early Mathematics Difficulties: The Feasibility of a Rigorous Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum. Learning Disability Quarterly, 31, 11–20.

Dowker, A. (2005). Early Identification and Intervention for Students With Mathematics Difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(4), 324–332.

Dunn, R., & Dunn, K. (1978). Teaching Students Through Their Individual Learning Styles: A Practical Approach. Reston Publishing Company.

Dunn, R., & Dunn, K. (1993). Teaching Secondary Students Through Their Individual Learning Styles: Practical Approaches for Grades 7-12 (1st ed.). Pearson.

Geary, D. (1994). Children’s Mathematical Development: Research and Practical Applications. American Psychological Association.

Godwin, K., Almeda, Ma. V., Seltman, H., Kai, S., Skerbetz, M., Baker, R., & Fisher, A. (2016). Off-task behavior in elementary school children. Learning and Instruction, 44, 128–143.

Honigsfeld, A., & Dunn, R. (2009). Learning-Style Responsive Approaches for Teaching Typically Performing and At-Risk Adolescents. The Clearing House, 82(5), 220–224.

Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the Brain in Mind (Revised 2nd). ASCD.

Kelley, B., Hosp, J. L., & Howell, K. W. (2008). Curriculum-Based Evaluation and Math: An Overview. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 33(4), 250–256.

Liggett, R. (2017). The Impact of Use of Manipulatives on the Math Scores of Grade 2 Students. Brock Education Journal, 26(2), 87–101.

Newcombe, N. S. (2010). Picture This: Increasing Math and Science Learning by Improving Spatial Thinking. American Educator, 34(2), 29.

Price, G. R., Mazzocco, M. M., & Ansari, D. (2013). Why Mental Arithmetic Counts: Brain Activation during Single Digit Arithmetic Predicts High School Math Scores. The Journal of Neuroscience, 33(1), 156–163.

Terada, Y. (2018). How Mistakes Help Students Learn: Guessing is useful for students’ ability to recall information—Even when the guesses are wrong. [Education]. Edutopia.

Multiplication Studies

Allen-Lyall, B. (2018). Helping Students to Automatize Multiplication Facts: A Pilot Study. 10(4), 6.

Ekowati, D. W. (2017). The Mathematical Connection Ability in Multiplication Material at the Elementary School. The Social Sciences, 12(12), 2212–2217.

Finaru, K. (2009). Accelerating the Learning of Multiplication Facts Through A Series of Sequential Strategies [Master of Arts in Teaching]. Sierra Nevada College.

Gray, R. F. (1965). An experiment in the teaching of introductory multiplication. The Arithmetic Teacher, 12(3), 199–203.

Hervey, M. A. (1966). Children’s responses to two types of multiplication problems. The Arithmetic Teacher, 13(4), 288–292.

Julie, H. (2017). The elementary school teachers’ ability in adding and subtracting fraction, and interpreting and computing multiplication and division fraction. International Journal of Science and Applied Science: Conference Series, 1(1), 55–63.

Kinzer, C. J., & Stanford, T. (2013). The Distributive Property: The Core of Multiplication. Teaching Children Mathematics, 20(5), 302–309.

Lampert, M. (1986). Knowing, Doing, and Teaching Multiplication. Cognition and Instruction, 3(4), 305–342.

Lemaire, P., Barrett, S., Fayol, M., & Abdi, H. (1994). Automatic Activation of Addition and Multiplication Facts in Elementary School Children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 57, 224–258.

Levenson, E., Tirosh, D., & Tsamir, P. (2004). ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ USE OF MATHEMATICALLY-BASED AND PRACTICALLY-BASED EXPLANATIONS: THE CASE OF MULTIPLICATION. Proceedings of the 28th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 3, 241–248.

Mulligan, J. T., & Mitchelmore, M. C. (1997). Young Children’s Intuitive Models of Multiplication and Division. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 28(3), 23.

Nugent, J. A. (2020). Multiplication Fact Fluency and Multiple Intelligences in a Third Grade Classroom [Master of Science in Education]. University of Maine.

Park, J.-H., & Nunes, T. (2001). The development of the concept of multiplication. Cognitive Development, 16(3), 763–773.


Skarr, A., Zielinski, K., Ruwe, K., Sharp, H., Williams, R., & McLaughlin, T. F. (2014). The Effects of Direct Instruction Flashcard and Math Racetrack Procedures on Mastery of Basic Multiplication Facts by Three Elementary School Students. Education and Treatment of Children, 37(1), 77–93.

Skinner, C., Ford, J., & Yunker, B. (1991). A Comparison of Instructional Response Requirements on the Multiplication Performance of Behaviorally Disordered Students. Behavioral Disorders, 17(1), 56–65.

Smith, S. Z., & Smith, M. E. (2006). Assessing Elementary Understanding of Multiplication Concepts. School Science and Mathematics, 106(3), 140–149.

Watanabe, T. (2003). Teaching Multiplication: An Analysis of Elementary School Mathematics Teachers’ Manuals from Japan and the United States. The Elementary School Journal, 104(2), 111–125.

Wilson, M. A., & Robinson, G. L. (1997). The use of sequenced count-by and constant time delay methods of teaching basic multiplication facts using parent volunteer tutors. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 9(2), 174–190.

Wong, M., & Evans, D. (2007). Improving basic multiplication fact recall for primary school students. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 19(1), 89–106.

ESL Studies

Allison, B. N., & Rehm, M. L. (2007). Effective Teaching Strategies for Middle School Learners in Multicultural, Multilingual Classrooms. Middle School Journal, 39(2), 12–18.

Fry, R. (2007). How Far Behind in Math and Reading are English Language Learners? (p. 32) [Education]. Pew Hispanic Center.

Lutz, N. (2015). The Relationship between Second Language Achievement and Language Learning Strategies in English First and Second Language Learners [Master of Education in Educational Psychology]. University of the Witwatersrand.

Mulalic, A., Shah, P. M., & Ahmad, F. (2009). LEARNING-STYLE PREFERENCE OF ESL STUDENTS. AJTLHE, 1(2), 9–17.

Oxford, R. L. (1996). Employing a Questionnaire To Assess the Use of Language Learning Strategies. Applied Language Learning, 7(1 & 2), 25–45.

Reid, J. M. (1987). The Learning Style Preferences of ESL Students. TESOL Quarterly, 21(1), 87–111.

Tatyana Putintseva. (2006). The Importance of Learning Styles in ESL/EFL (TESL/TEFL). The Internet TESL Journal, 12(3).

Math Anxiety & Self-Esteem

Akin, A., & Kurbanoglu, I. (2011). The Relationships Between Math Anxiety, Math Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy: A Structural Equation Model. Studia Psychologica, 53(3), 263–273.

Allan Wigfield & Judith L. Meece. (1988). Math Anxiety in Elementary and Secondary School Students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(2), 210–216.

Baumeister, R., Campbell, J., Krueger, J., & Vohs, K. (2003). DOES HIGH SELF-ESTEEM CAUSE BETTER PERFORMANCE, INTERPERSONAL SUCCESS,  HAPPINESS, OR HEALTHIER LIFESTYLES? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1), 1–44.

Beilock, S., Gunderson, E., Ramirez, G., & Levine, S. (2010). Female teachers’ math anxiety affects girls’ math achievement. PNAS, 107(5), 1860–1863.

Bekdemir, M. (2010). The pre-service teachers’ mathematics anxiety related to depth of negative experiences in mathematics classroom while they were students. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 75, 311–328.

Booth, M., & Gerard, J. (2011). Self-esteem and academic achievement: A comparative study of adolescent students in England and the United States. Compare, 41(5), 629–648.

Doménech-Betoret, F., Abellán-Roselló, L., & Gómez-Artiga, A. (2017). Self-Efficacy, Satisfaction, and Academic Achievement: The Mediator Role of Students’ Expectancy-Value Beliefs. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(1193), 1–12.

Gerardo Ramires, Elizabeth A. Gunderson, Susan C. Levine, & Sian L. Beilock. (2012). Math Anxiety, Working  Memory and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School. Journal of Cognition and Development.

Giunta, L., Alessandri, G., Gerbino, M., Kanacri, P., Zuffianò, A., & Caprara, G. (2013). The determinants of scholastic achievement: The contribution of personality traits, self-esteem, and academic self-efficacy. Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 102–108.

Harper, N., & Daane, C. J. (1998). Causes and Reduction of Math Anxiety in Preservice Elementary Teachers. Action in Teacher Education, 19(4), 29–38.

Körük, S. (2017). The Effect of Self-Esteem on Student Achievement. In E. Karadağ (Ed.), The Factors Effecting Student Achievement (pp. 247–257). Springer International Publishing.

Lyons, I., & Beilock, S. (2012). When Math Hurts: Math Anxiety Predicts Pain Network Activation in Anticipation of Doing Math. PLoS ONE, 7(10), e48076.

Peterman, C., & Ewing, J. (2019). Effects of Movement, Growth Mindset and Math Talks on Math Anxiety. Journal of Multicultural Affairs, 4(1), 1–24.

Picha, G. (2018). Recognizing and Alleviating Math Anxiety: Math anxiety affects almost half of elementary school students. Spot the symptoms and use these strategies to counteract it. [Education]. Edutopia.

Piper, B. (2008). Attitudes, Confidence, and Achievement of High-Ability Fifth Grade Math Students [Summative Projects for MA Degree, University of Nebraska].

Schmidt, J., & Padilla, B. (2003). Self-Esteem and Family Challenge: An Investigation of Their Effects on Achievement. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32(1), 37–46.

Tobias, S. (1995). Overcoming Math Anxiety (Revised edition). W. W. Norton & Company.

Weaver, S. (n.d.). “I can’t do math!” Self-fulfilling prophecies in learning [Education]. Fort Wayne Center for Learning.

Wigfield, A., & Meece, J. (1988). Math Anxiety in Elementary and Secondary School Students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(2), 210–216.

Young, C., Wu, S., & Menon, V. (2012). The neurodevelopmental basis of math anxiety. Psychological Science, 23(5), 492–501.

Zakaria, E., & Nordin, N. (2008). The Effects of Mathematics Anxiety on Matriculation Students as Related to Motivation and Achievement. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 4(1), 27–30.

Zuffianò, A., Alessandri, G., Gerbino, M., Kanacri, B., Giunta, L., Milioni, M., & Caprara, G. (2012). Academic achievement: The unique contribution of self-efficacy beliefs in self-regulated learning beyond intelligence, personality traits, and self-esteem. Learning and Individual Differences, 5.

Reading & Literacy

A picture book reading intervention in day care and home for children from low-income families. (1994). Developmental Psychology, 30(5), 679–689.

Donald Hernandez. (2011). Double Jeopardy: How Third-Grade Reading  Skills and Poverty Influence High School Graduation (p. 24). The Annie E. Casey Foundation.

Froiland, J., & Oros, E. (2014). Intrinsic motivation, perceived competence and classroom engagement as longitudinal predictors of adolescent reading achievement. Educational Psychology, 34(2), 119–132.

Kilpatrick, D. (2016). Equipped for Reading Success. Casey & Kirsch Publishers.

Walker, T. D. (2015, October 1). The Joyful, Illiterate Kindergartners of Finland. The Atlantic.

Wolf, M. (2008). Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain. Harper Perennial.

The “State” of Education

Amurao, C. (2013). Fact Sheet: Is the Dropout Problem Real? Tavis Smiley Reports: PBS, Public Broadcasting Service.

Ansell, S. (2011). Issues A-Z: Achievement Gap. Education Week.

Bev Perdue. (2015, August 14). Why We’re Bad at Math: It’s a Confidence Thing. Education Post: The Belief Gap.

Boaler, J. (2013). Ability and Mathematics: The mindset  revolution that is reshaping education. FORUM, 55(1), 143–152.

Brown, A., & Brown, L. (2007). What Are Science and Math Scores Really Telling U. S.? The Bent of Tau Beta Pi, 13–17.

Coughlan, S. (2015, September 15). School computers “do not raise results.” BBC News.

DeSilver, D. (2017, February 15). U.S. students’ academic achievement still lags that of their peers in many other countries. Pew Research Center.

Eric Dearing, Kathleen McCartney, & Beck Taylor. (2009). Does Higher Quality Child Care Promote Low-Income Children’s Math and Reading Achievement in Middle Childhood? Child Development, 80(5), 1329–1349.

Fleming, N. D., & Mills, C. (1992). Not another inventory, rather a catalyst for reflection. To Improve the Academy, 11(1), 137–144.

García, E., & Weiss, E. (2019). The teacher shortage is real, large and growing, and worse than we thought (The Perfect Storm in the Teacher Labor Market, p. 19). Economic Policy Institute.

Human Rights Advocate. (2017, May 5). 2017 World Best Education Systems—1st Quarter Report. Educate Every Child on the Planet:  The World Top 20 Project.

Irby, D. (2017). Middle School Student and Teacher Perceptions About the Effectiveness of the Technology Integration in the Classroom. Dissertations, 1–235.

Kearney, M., Harris, B., Jácome, E., & Parker, L. (2014). Ten Economic Facts about Crime and Incarceration in the United States. The Hamilton Project.

OECD. (2016). Indicator B1 How Much is Spent Per Student? Education at a Glance, 180–197.

Perdue, B. (2015). Why We’re Bad at Math: It’s a Confidence Thing [Education]. The Belief Gap.

The Condition of Education—Elementary and Secondary Education—Student Effort, Persistence and Progress—Public High School Graduation Rates. (2017, April).

Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. (2012). National Center for Educational Statistics.

Van Dusen, D. (2020). When Are We Going To Teach Health? Let’s Teach Health As If Each Child’s Life Depends On It – Because It Does. Lioncrest.

Weller, C. (2017, December 6). 8 reasons Finland’s education system puts the US model to shame. Business Insider.

World Best Education Systems. (2017). Educate Every Child on the Planet:  The World Top 20 Project.

Race & Gender Studies

Aronson, J., & Inzlicht, M. (2004). The Ups and Downs of Attributional Ambiguity: Stereotype Vulnerability and the Academic Self-Knowledge of African American College Students. Psychological Science, 15(12), 829–836.

Bachman, J., O’Malley, P., Freedman-Doan, P., Trzesniewski, K., & Donnellan, M. B. (2011). Adolescent Self-Esteem: Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age. Self Identity, 10(4), 445–473.

Favre, L. R. (2007). Analysis of the transformation of a low socioeconomic status African-American, New Orleans elementary facility into a demonstration Learning-Style School of Excellence. Journal of Urban Education: Focus on Enrichment, 4(1), 79–90.

Ferguson, A. A. (2001). Bad Boys: Public Schools in the Making of Black Masculinity. University of Michigan Press.

Goetz, T., Bieg, M., Lüdtke, O., Pekrun, R., & Hall, N. (2013). Do Girls Really Experience More Anxiety  in Mathematics? Psychological Science, 24(10), 2079–2087.

Jencks, C., & Phillips, M. (1998). The Black-White Test Score Gap. Brokings Institution Press.

Jensen, E. (2019). Poor Students, Rich Teaching: Seven High-Impact Mindsets for Students From Poverty (Using Mindsets in the Classroom to Overcome Student Poverty and Adversity) (Revised). Solution Tree Press.

Sinha, S., & Modi, J. N. (2014). Psychosocial aspects of changes during adolescence among school going adolescent Indian girls. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3(2), 409–413.

Spencer, S., Steele, C., & Quinn, D. (1999). Stereotype Threat and Women’s Math Performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 4–28.

Learning Disabilities & Special Education

Bauer, E. (1987). Learning Style and the Learning Disabled: Experimentation with Ninth-Graders. The Clearing House, 60(5), 206–208.

Dunn, R., & Price, D. (1980). The Learning Style Characteristics of Gifted Students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 24(1), 33–36.

Geary, D. (2004). Mathematics and Learning Disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(1), 4–15.

Hallowell, E. (1995). Driven To Distraction: Recognizing and Coping with Attention Deficit Disorder from Childhood Through Adulthood. Touchstone Books.

Hoza, B. (2007). Peer Functioning in Children With ADHD. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32(6), 655–663.

Licari, M., & Larkin, D. (2008). Increased associated movements: Influence of attention deficits and movement difficulties. Human Movement Science, 27(2), 310–324.

Metcalfe, D., McKenzie, K., McCarty, K., & Pollet, T. (2019). Emotion recognition from body movement and gesture in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder is improved by situational cues. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 86, 1–10.

Stormont, M. (2001). Social outcomes of children with AD/HD: Contributing factors and implications for practice. Psychology in the Schools, 38(6), 521–531.

Swanson, H. L. (2001). Searching for the Best Model for Instructing Students With Learning Disabilities. FOCUS ON EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN, 34(2), 16.

Building Instructional Relationships


Benson, P. (2010). Parent, Teacher, Mentor, Friend: How Every Adult Can Change Kids’ Lives. Search Institute Press.

Birch, S., & Ladd, G. (1997). The Teacher-Child Relationship and Children’s Early School Adjustment. Journal of School Psychology, 35(1), 61–79.

Curby, T., Rimm-Kaufman, S., & Ponitz, C. (2009). Teacher–Child Interactions and Children’s Achievement Trajectories Across Kindergarten and First Grade. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(4), 912–925.

Ewing, A., & Taylor, A. (2009). The role of child gender and ethnicity in teacher–child relationship quality and children’s behavioral adjustment in preschool. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24(1), 92–105.

Finn, J. (1998). Parental Engagement That Makes a Difference. Education Leadership, 55(8), 20–24.

Florian, L., & Linklater, H. (2010). Preparing teachers for inclusive education: Using inclusive  pedagogy to enhance teaching and learning for all. Cambridge Journal of Education, 40(4), 369–386.

Grose, M. (2016). Teach kids to think before they jump to conclusions. Parenting.

Gunderson, E., Ramirez, G., Levine, S., & Beilock, S. (2012). The Role of Parents and Teachers in the Development of Gender-Related Math Attitudes. Sex Roles, 66, 153–166.

Langworthy, S. (2015). Bridging the Relationship Gap: Connecting with Children Facing Adversity. Redleaf Press.

O’Connor, E., Dearing, E., & Collins, B. (2011). Teacher-child relationship and behavior problem trajectories in elementary school. American Educational Research Journal, 48(1), 120–162.

Spilt, J., Koomen, H., & Thijs, J. (2011). Teacher Wellbeing: The Importance of Teacher–Student Relationships. Educational Psychology Review, 23, 457–477.

Social-Emotional Learning & Resilience Building

Boyle, G. (2011). Tattoos on the Heart: The Power of Boundless Compassion. Free Press.

César Dias, P., & Cadime, I. (2017). Protective factors and resilience in adolescents: The mediating role of self-regulation. Psicología Educativa, 23(1), 37–43.

Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P., & Davies, F. (2007). The impact of hope, self-esteem, and attributional style on adolescents’ school grades and emotional well-being: A longitudinal study. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 1161–1178.

Cohn, M., & Fredrickson, B. (2006). Beyond the Moment, Beyond the Self: Shared Ground between Selective Investment Theory and the Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions. Psychological Inquiry, 17(1), 39–44.

Cohn, M., Fredrickson, B., Brown, S., Mikels, J., & Conway, A. (2009). Happiness unpacked: Positive emotions increase life satisfaction by building resilience. Emotion, 9(3), 361–368.

Einolf, K. (2017). Ready to Educate and Connect with the WHOLE Child? TranZed Institute, 9(5).

Forbes, H. (2012). Help for Billy: A Beyond Consequences Approach to Helping Challenging Children in the Classroom. Beyond Consequences Institute, LLC.

Kimura, Y. (2010). Expressing Emotions in Teaching: Inducement, Suppression, and Disclosure as Caring Profession. Educational Studies in Japan: International Yearbook, 5, 63–78.

Kottman, T. (2013). Positive Emotions. In C. Schaefer & A. Drewes (Eds.), The Therapeutic Powers of Play: 20 Core Agents of Change, 2nd Edition (Second, pp. 103–120). Wiley.

Luthar, S. (2015). Resilience in Development: A Synthesis of Research across Five Decades. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (Second, Vol. 3, pp. 739–795). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Masten, A. S., Cutuli, J. J., Herbers, J. E., & Reed, M.-G. J. (2009). Resilience in development. In C. S. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (2nd ed., pp. 117–131). Oxford University Press.

Mottet, T., & Beebe, S. (2000). Emotional Contagion in the Classroom: An Examination of How Teacher and Student Emotions Are Related. Annual Meeting of the National Communication Association, 36.

Pizzolongo, P., & Hunter, A. (2011). I Am Safe and Secure: Promoting Resilience in Young Children. Young Children, 67–69.

Promising Futures. (n.d.). Protective Factors & Resiliency. Supporting Parenting.

Rimm-Kaufman, S., Baroody, A., Curby, T., Ko, M., Thomas, J., Merritt, E., Abry, T., & DeCoster, J. (2014). Efficacy of the Responsive Classroom Approach: Results From a 3-Year, Longitudinal Randomized Controlled Trial. American Educational Research Journal, 51(3), 567–603.

Rodrigo-Ruiz, D. (2016). Effect of Teachers’ Emotions on Their Students: Some Evidence. Journal of Education & Social Policy, 3(4), 73–79.

Sciaraffa, M., Zeanah, P., & Zeanah, C. (2018). Understanding and Promoting Resilience in the Context of Adverse Childhood Experiences. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46(3), 343–353.

Spence, M. (2006, April 13). Graphic Design: Collaborative Processes = Understanding Self and Others [Lecture]. Art 325: Collaborative Processes.

Sutton, R. (2005). Teachers’ Emotions and Classroom Effectiveness: Implications from Recent Research. The Clearing House, 78(5), 229–234.

Sutton, R., & Wheatley, K. (2003). Teachers’ Emotions and Teaching: A Review of the Literature and Directions for Future Research. Educational Psychology Review, 15, 327–358.

Tugade, M., Fredrickson, B., & Barrett, L. (2004). Psychological Resilience and Positive Emotional Granularity: Examining the Benefits of Positive Emotions on Coping and Health. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1161–1190.

Wolkow, K., & Ferguson, H. B. (2001). Community Factors in the Development of Resiliency: Considerations and Future Directions. Community Mental Health Journal, 37(6), 489–498.

Learning & Living

Boaler, J. (2019). Limitless Mind: Learn, Lead, and Live Without Barriers. HarperOne.

Braio, A., Beasley, T. M., Dunn, R., Quinn, P., & Buchanan, K. (1997). Incremental Implementation of Learning Style Strategies among Urban Low Achievers. The Journal of Educational Research, 91(1), 15–25.

Decades of Scientific Research that Started a Growth Mindset Revolution. (n.d.). Mindsetworks.

Diamond, S. (2003). Processing speed and motor planning: The scientific background to the skills trained by Interactive Metronome® technology. Susan J. Diamond 2003.

Dweck, C. (2007). Mindset: The New Psychology of Success (Updated). Ballantine Books.

Dweck, C. (2016, January 13). What Having a “Growth Mindset” Actually Means. Harvard Business Review.

Fine, D. (2003). A sense of learning style. Principal Leadership, 4(2), 55–59.

Hannaford, C. (2007). Smart Moves: Why Learning Is Not All in Your Head (2nd edition). Great River Books.

Hannaford, C. (2011). The Dominance Factor: How Knowing Your Dominant Eye, Ear, Brain, Hand and Foot Can Improve Your Learning (1st ed.). Great River Books.

Hansford, B. C., & Hattie, J. A. (1982). The Relationship Between Self and Achievement/Performance Measures. Review of Educational Research, 52(1), 123–142.

Keefe, J. (1987). Learning Style Theory and Practice (p. 53). National Association of Secondary School Principals.

Kempermann, G. (2002). Why New Neurons? Possible Functions for Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis. The Journal of Neuroscience, 22(3), 635–638.

Lister, D. (2004). Comparisons between the learning styles of under achieving and regular education sixth-grade Bermudian students and the effects of responsive instruction on the former’s social studies achievement-and attitude-test scores [Doctorate]. St. John’s University.

Lombardi, J. (2008). Beyond Learning Styles: Brain-Based Research and English Language Learners. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 81(5), 219–222.

Medina, J. (2014). Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School. Pear Press.

Montessori, M. (1982). The Secret of Childhood. Ballantine Books.

Nelson, B., Dunn, R., Griggs, S., & Primavera, L. (1993). Effects of learning style intervention on college students retention and achievement. Journal of College Student Development, 34(5), 364–369.

Othman, N., & Amiruddin, M. H. (2010). Different Perspectives of Learning Styles from VARK Model. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 7, 652–660.

Ratey, J., Manning, R., & Perlmutter, D. (2015). Go Wild: Eat Fat, Run Free, Be Social, and Follow Evolution’s Other Rules for Total Health and Well-being. Little, Brown Spark.

Siegler, R., & Stern, E. (1998). Conscious and Unconscious Strategy Discoveries: A Microgenetic Analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127(4), 377–397.

Zimmerman, B. (2002). Becoming a Self-Regulated Learner: An Overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(2), 64–70.

History of Mathematics

Holmburg, C. (2014). Mathematics and Astronomy from Ancient Greece to Newton (Vol. 1). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Netz, R. (2002). Greek Mathematicians: A Group Picture. In C. J. Tuplin & T. E. Rihll (Eds.), Science and Mathematics in Ancient Greek Culture (pp. 196–216). Oxford University Press.

Netz, R. (2010). What Did Greek Mathematicians Find Beautiful? Classical Philology, 105, 426–449.

Learn About The American Rescue Plan

The federal government is sending funds to schools to help students get back to grade-level due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To learn more about how you can help to get those funds to the right places, click the link below.